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Background[ edit ] Secularization is sometimes credited both to the cultural shifts in society following the emergence of rationality and the development of science as a substitute for superstition — Max Weber called this process the "disenchantment of the world"—and to the changes made by religious institutions to compensate.
At the most basic stages, this begins with a slow transition from oral traditions to a writing culture that diffuses knowledge. This first reduces the authority of clerics as the custodians of revealed knowledge.
As the responsibility for education has moved from the family and community to the statetwo consequences have arisen: Collective conscience as defined by Durkheim is diminished Fragmentation of communal activities leads to religion becoming more a matter of individual choice rather than an observed social obligation.
A major issue in the study of secularization is the extent to which certain trends such as decreased attendance at places of worship indicate a decrease in religiosity or simply a privatization of religious belief, where religious beliefs no longer play a dominant role in public life or in other aspects of decision making.
The issue of secularization is discussed in various religious traditions. The government of Turkey is an often cited[ by whom?
This established popular sovereignty in a secular republican framework, in opposition to a system whose authority is based on religion. As one of many examples of state modernization, this shows secularization and democratization as mutually reinforcing processes[ citation needed ], relying on a separation of religion and state.
In expressly secular states like Indiait has been argued[ by whom? Considerations of both tolerance and autonomy are relevant to any secular state.
John Sommerville outlined six uses of the term secularization in the scientific literature. The first five are more along the lines of 'definitions' while the sixth is more of a 'clarification of use': When discussing individual institutions, secularization can denote the transformation of a religious into a secular institution.
Examples would be the evolution of institutions such as Harvard University from a predominantly religious institution into a secular institution with a divinity school now housing the religious element illustrating differentiation.
When discussing activities, secularization refers to the transfer of activities from religious to secular institutions, such as a shift in provision of social services from churches to the government.
When discussing mentalities, secularization refers to the transition from ultimate concerns to proximate concerns.
This is a personal religious decline or movement toward a secular lifestyle. When discussing populations, secularization refers to broad patterns of societal decline in levels of religiosity as opposed to the individual-level secularization of 4 above.
This understanding of secularization is also distinct from 1 above in that it refers specifically to religious decline rather than societal differentiation. When discussing religion, secularization can only be used unambiguously to refer to religion in a generic sense.
For example, a reference to Christianity is not clear unless one specifies exactly which denominations of Christianity are being discussed. Abdel Wahab Elmessiri outlined two meanings of the term secularization:In every country, there are, naturally, peculiar laws which regulate the immigration process.
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40 (Volume 20, No. 1) March, Introduction by The Editors. SOCIALISM AND DEMOCRACY AT Frank Rosengarten – Looking Back in Order to Look Ahead: Twenty Years of Research and Publishing by the Research Group on Socialism and Democracy Victor Wallis – Socialism and Democracy During the First 20 Years of Socialism and Democracy.
A NEW WORLD ORDER?. Harvard style referencing is an author/date method. Sources are cited within the body of your assignment by giving the name of the author(s) followed by the date of publication.
Immigration Immigration is the act of moving to reside in another country permanently. People who immigrate is called immigrant or can be considered as permanent resident. In the old days, people immigrate to another country due to many factors such as changing climate, inadequate supply of food and wars.