Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. The ascent to paramountcy At that point a radical change occurred in British policy. Two causes were principally responsible.
Mongolia, land largely used by wildlife, with salt lake in the distance. After decollectivization, livestock was allocated to families and grazing land has also been distributed according to the law.
The allocation of relatively small areas of semi -arid grassland to families has greatly reduced herd mobility. Currently, 90 percent of grassland shows signs of deterioration, of which moderately degraded grassland is Numbers stabilized, but pasture condition is mediocre.
The grasslands have been allocated to families in relatively small units and it remains to be seen how effective management will be of small areas of semi-arid risk -prone grassland.
In the Hindu Kush-Himalaya region there is extreme pressure on such extensive grazing lands as remain. The alpine pastures do get a seasonal rest during snow cover, but elsewhere there is constant grazing except on seasonally closed hay land from sedentary stock owners, and periodic grazing by transhumants.
Because of the very high human population, all possible land has been cleared for crop production. The situation in the Near East is similar to that in North Africa. Breakdown of tribal authority led to the disruption of traditional grazing rights and migration patterns.
Purchased feed and availability of transport and water supplies enabled much larger numbers of stock to be kept through the lean season, and pastures were no longer rested once surface water supplies ran out.
The human population and livestock numbers have multiplied. Much semi -arid pasture has been ploughed for unproductive cropping. Uprooting of bushes for fuel is very damaging to the pastoral vegetation. Turkey has changed in the past century from a mainly pastoral country to one where crop production is very important.
This meant a great reduction in the area of grassland, but there was no concomitant reduction in livestock, which increased in numbers. Later intensification of cropping systems replaced grazed fallow with pulses and other cash crops, further reducing grazing resource s. The land tenure system is a major constraint to grassland management.
Common areas are grazed free of charge, so are not managed properly.
Boundaries of pastures are not clearly determined nor assigned to village communities. Labour is becoming scarce in pastoral areas as people move to towns, so flocks are not well herded.
The grasslands of the Russian steppe were increasingly cleared for crops during the twentieth century; initially crops rotated with tumble-down fallow, but later the cropping cycle became more intensive.
Meadows in floodplains and depressions remained an important source of hay. Stock were mainly housed during the collective period. The system has yet to stabilize following decollectivization, but herds are fragmented and are left to graze at will, leading to overgrazing close to homesteads while distant pastures are neglected.
The studies concentrate on domestic livestock, but most mention the other grazers, which are important in natural grassland ecosystems - ranging from large ruminants and marsupials to the rodents and lagomorphs that are major herbivores in many cool, semi -arid situations.
Wildlife plays an important role in maintaining some grasslands, such as in eastern Africa, where the presence of elephants and fire are important.
Grassland development, improvement and rehabilitation Most grasslands, whether commercially or traditionally managed, have required some development inputs to make stock-rearing possible or more efficient.
All grazing resource s have to be taken into account and these cover much more than the herbaceous stratum. Grassland resources Water Water is the major determining factor in stock management in most extensive grazing lands; in areas dependent on seasonal surface water, stock must move out once sources have dried.
Improvement of water supply by creating water points or improving existing ones, and clearing of undesirable vegetation to allow free access for stock and better grass growth, are common to both systems, and provision of minerals or traditional salt licks is frequent.
Water availability is a factor in determining many migration patterns in mobile systems. In both East and West Africa, traditional rules govern pastoral water use, and in very dry areas water is a more important resource than is grazing. In areas with very cold winters, as noted in the Mongolia study, surface water freezes; wells provide water, but, in their absence, herders may have to extract water from below ice, melt snow or have stock eat snow to find water - in severe winter weather events, dehydration may be as damaging to stock as lack of food.
Without water development, stock would be limited to areas close to permanent sources of water throughout the dry season, and large areas of grassland would not be useable for livestock production. Access to water is mentioned as a limiting factor to use of some grazing areas in South Africa.Problems of Rice Growing.
Flooding – provides water and fertile silt to grow the rice but sometimes disaster strikes when the floods are so severe that they destroy the rice crop. Drought – in some years the monsoon rains 'fail' and the rice crop is ruined.
This section introduces a range of climate-smart agriculture (CSA) practices and technologies within seven entry points for CSA; soil management, crop management, water management, livestock management, forestry, fisheries and aquaculture, and energy iridis-photo-restoration.comces are understood broadly as ways of doing things, for example, precision farming, tillage, and fertilization; these are all.
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India and WTO – Detailed Analysis of All Related Issues and Concepts Table of Contents. Jul 24, · For the Dhaniram Family in the rural village of Nayrangpur, Nepal, Rice planting is an important yearly event, as it is in much of Asia. This extended family consists of .
In the intensive subsistence farming, dominated by other crops, the methods and operations of cultivation are equally intensive and farming is on subsistence basis.
In north China, Manchuria, North Korea, and Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh in India, wheat, maize, millets, pulses, soya-bean and oilseeds are intensively grown. Rice, Agriculture, and the Food Supply in Premodern Japan (Needham Research Institute Series) - Kindle edition by Charlotte von Verschuer, Wendy Cobcroft.
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