These range from the conceptual, such as a clear definition of training outcomes, to the practical, such as logistical considerations. By addressing key issues before and during the design phase, the training designer can both increase course effectiveness and speed implementation.
Lancaster General Neuropsychology Specialists Introduction Obesity is as much a psychological as a physical problem. Psychological issues can not only foreshadow the development of obesity, but they can also follow ongoing struggles to control weight.
Because the psychological aspects of obesity are so important, psychological assessments and interventions have become an integral part of a multidisciplinary approach to treating obesity, which includes the use of bariatric surgery.
Individuals who suffer from psychological disorders e. Food is often used as a coping mechanism by those with weight problems, particularly when they are sad, anxious, stressed, lonely, and frustrated.
In many obese individuals there appears to be a perpetual cycle of mood disturbance, overeating, and weight gain. When they feel distressed, they turn to food to help cope, and though such comfort eating may result in temporary attenuation of their distressed mood, the weight gain that results may cause a dysphoric mood due to their inability to control their stress.
The resulting guilt may reactivate the cycle, leading to a continuous pattern of using food to cope with emotions. Unfortunately, these circumstances are common in America. Obese individuals have typically made multiple attempts to lose weight, with little or no success.
Their failed attempts result in discouragement, frustration, hopelessness, and learned helplessness about the prospect of losing weight in the future on their own. For this reason, many turn to bariatric surgery as a last resort.
Not surprisingly, significant weight loss confers psychological as well as medical benefits, with improved mood, self-esteem, motivation, and relationships.
A meta-analysis of 40 studies focusing on psychosocial outcomes of bariatric surgery proposed that psychological health and psychosocial status including social relationships and employment opportunities improved; and psychiatric symptoms and comorbidity, predominantly affective disorders, decreased.
These changes led to improved quality of life for the majority who had weight loss surgery. Classical and operant conditioning are the two traditional behavioral therapy models, usually used in weekly sessions lasting The behaviors become conditioned to occur together, as when a person eats nachos while watching the evening news.
If these two behaviors are paired repeatedly, they become so strongly associated with one another that turning on the news alone triggers a craving for nachos.
Behavioral intervention involves identifying and extinguishing the inappropriate psychological or environmental triggers and cues. Operant conditioning uses reinforcement and consequences.
A person who uses food as a reward or to temporarily attenuate stress will associate food with a more pleasurable state, which makes it more likely to to become a repeated behavior. Although behavior therapy results in lifestyle changes and weight loss in the short-term, there is no strong evidence of its long-term effectiveness.
More recently cognitive therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy CBT have become an important aspect of the treatment of obesity. Cognitions influence both feelings and behaviors, and they cannot be ignored when treating obesity.
CBT is utilized in the treatment of obesity as a way to help individuals change their negative eating behaviors and incorporate healthy lifestyle changes. There are two primary reasons for this policy: Unfortunately, there is no single psychological characteristic or set of psychological characteristics of extremely obese individuals that is consistently predictive of success or failure following bariatric surgery, as several different psychological characteristics are likely associated with weight maintenance and relapse in obesity.
Research is mixed regarding the association between co-morbid psychiatric disorders and complications after bariatric surgery. Psychologists who specialize in working with the bariatric population can offer patients psychoeducation regarding the post-operative diet and emphasize the importance of behavior change for weight loss and maintenance post-surgery.
Patients often need to be reminded that bariatric surgery is stomach surgery, not brain surgery, and they have to maintain control over their thinking and behavior to make healthy choices for the rest of their life. Emotional struggles are common post-surgery, as bariatric surgery has significant psychic effects.
Patients sometimes feel their weight loss is less than they anticipated and it takes longer. Frustration can lead to lack of motivation and difficulty adhering to the post-operative diet. Psychologists can assist these patients by utilizing cognitive restructuring to help them rationally evaluate their progress, as well as behavioral activation to aid them in making healthy behavior changes.
Additionally, some patients who struggled with emotional eating before surgery may return to similar behaviors post-surgery, resulting in less than optimal weight loss. Psychologists can help these patients identify their triggers for emotional eating and encourage them to develop a coping repertoire that involves more constructive behaviors rather than eating.
With rapid weight loss there often is sagging skin and many patients cannot afford cosmetic surgery to correct this. It is not uncommon for patients to discover body image dissatisfaction in a new way, which unfortunately may result in issues with their marriage and intimacy.The choice of these factors is critical to success, since, if one important factor and its influence are overlooked, the outcome of the evaluation may well be entirely wrong 4.
4 The terms 'factor', 'attribute' and 'characteristic' are regarded, in this text, as interchangeable and all are deliberately accepted to . GBD is the most comprehensive effort to date to measure epidemiological levels and trends worldwide.
It is the product of a global research collaborative and quantifies the impact of hundreds of diseases, injuries, and risk factors in countries around the world.
The factors that would influence the choice of evaluation design are fairness, easy to understand, involved Solution Summary This answer provides you an . Skeletal muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth iridis-photo-restoration.com is a form of striated muscle tissue which is under the voluntary control of the somatic nervous system.
Most skeletal muscles are attached to bones by bundles of collagen fibers known as tendons.. A skeletal muscle refers to multiple bundles of cells called muscle fibers. Performance Evaluation Tests.
Performance is an assessment of how well a task is executed and the success of a training program is largely dependent upon satisfying the performance aims associated with it.
Multi-Dimensional Engine Modeling. This collection covers advances in the development and application of models and tools involved in multi-dimensional engine modeling: advances in chemical kinetics, combustion and spray modeling, turbulence, heat transfer, mesh generation, and approaches targeting improved computational efficiency.