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Wertsman Overview Romania is a country slightly smaller than the state of Oregon, measuring 91, square milessquare kilometers. Located in southeastern Europe, it is bounded by the Ukraine and Slovakia to the north, Bulgaria to the south, Serbia to the southwest, Moldavia and the Black Sea to the east, and Hungary to the west.
Although the majority of Romanian Americans immigrated from Romania, several thousand families also came from countries bordering or adjacent to Romania, such as Moldova and Albania. Romania has a population of slightly over 23 million people. Eighty-eight percent are of Romanian ethnic origin while the rest consist of various ethnic minorities, including Hungarians, Germans, Serbians, Bulgarians, Gypsies, and Armenians.
Eighty percent of the population nominally belong to the Romanian Orthodox Church, and approximately ten percent are Catholics of the Byzantine Rite. Although Roman occupation of Dacia ended in A. The ancestors of the modern Romanian people managed to preserve their Latin heritage despite Gothic, Slavic, Greek, Hungarian, and Turkish conquests, and the Romanian language has survived as a member of the Romance languages group.
Romania has been subjected to numerous occupations by foreign powers since the Middle Ages. In the thirteenth century, the Romanian principalities Moldavia and Wallachia became vassal states of the Ottoman Empire.
Bukovina, Transylvania, and Banat were incorporated into the Austro-Hungarian Empire during the s. Czarist Russia occupied Bessarabia in In Moldavia and Wallachia became unified through the auspices of the Paris Peace Conference, and Romania became a national state.
InRomania was proclaimed a kingdom and Carol I was installed as its first monarch. Romania regained Transylvania, Banat, Bukovina and other territories after the war.
InCarol II was named General Ion Antonescu premier of Romania, who then forced the monarch to renounce his throne in favor of his son, Michael I —. In the last year of the war, however, Romania switched its alliance to the Soviets and, after the war ended, Antonescu was executed.
In national elections held inmembers of the Communist party assumed many high-level positions in the new government, and King Michael I was forced to abdicate his throne.
Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej of the Romanian Communist party served as premier and later as chief of state In the post-Communist years, various changes have occurred, including a free press, free elections, and a multi-party electorate bringing to power a democratic government President Emil Constantinescu, —.
Romania also petitioned to become a member of NATO, and its candidacy will be considered in the year In the late eighteenth century, a Transylvanian priest named Samuel Damian immigrated to America for scientific reasons. Damian conducted various experiments with electricity and even caught the attention of Benjamin Franklin they met and had a conversation in Latin.
After living in South Carolina for a few years, Damian left for Jamaica and disappeared from historical record. Ina group of Romanians came to California during the Gold Rush but, being unsuccessful, migrated to Mexico. Romanians continued to immigrate to America during this period and some distinguished themselves in the Union Army during the Civil War.
George Pomutz joined the Fifteenth Volunteer Regiment of Iowa and fought at such battlefields as Shiloh, Corinth, and Vicksburg, and was later promoted to the rank of Brigadier General. They came from various regions, including Wallachia and Moldavia.
The majority of these immigrants—particularly those from Transylvania and Banat—were unskilled laborers who left their native regions because of economic depression and forced assimilation, a policy practiced by Hungarian rulers. They were attracted to the economic stability of the United States, which promised better wages and improved working conditions.
Many did not plan to establish permanent residency in America, intending instead to save enough money to return to Romania and purchase land. Consequently, tens of thousands of Romanian immigrants who achieved this goal left the United States within a few years, and by the Romanian American population was approximately 85, Between andthe number of Romanians entering the United States declined for several reasons.
Following World War I, Transylvania, Bukovina, Bessarabia, and other regions under foreign rule officially became part of Romania, thus arresting emigration for a time. In addition, the U.
Immigration Act of established a quota system which allowed only persons per year to immigrate from Romania. The Great Depression added to the decline of new Romanian immigrants to the United States; immigration figures reached their lowest level at the beginning of World War II.
Romanians who did enter the country during this period, however, included students, professionals, and others who later made notable contributions to American society. When the Communists assumed control of the country in they imposed many political, economic, and social restrictions on the Romanian people.
Refugees who had left the country as a result of persecutions, arrests, or fear of being mistreated and exiles who were already abroad and chose not to return to Romania were admitted into the United States through the auspices of the Displaced Persons Act of and other legislation passed to help absorb the flood of refugees and other immigrants from postwar Europe.
Because of the abrupt and dramatic nature of their departure, the refugees and exiles estimated at about 30, received special moral and financial support from various Romanian organizations—religious and secular—in America.In this chapter, we review research bearing on some key questions about the social dimensions of immigration.
The first set of issues concerns the integration of immigrants and their children into American society: social and spatial mobility across generations, competence in the English language, naturalization, and intermarriage and ethnic.
Immigration to Canada is the process by which people migrate to Canada to reside in that country. The majority of these individuals become Canadian iridis-photo-restoration.com , domestic immigration law and policy went through major changes, most notably with the Immigration Act, , and the current Immigration and Refugee Protection Act from .
Thus, from to , many Japanese Americans began to embrace both Japanese and American cultures, nurtured cross-cultural social life, carved out economic sectors for themselves, and created political organizations with active participation in local cities and towns.
The Socialist Republic of Vietnam is a long, narrow, "S"-shaped country of , square miles (, square kilometers). It extends about 1, miles from southern China southward to the Gulf of Thailand.
The sex ratio was slightly skewed, with females making up 54 percent of the total Japanese American population. U.S. natives were evenly divided, at But 63 percent of foreign-born Japanese immigrants were female. Over 60 percent of all Japanese Americans live in two states, California (34 percent) and Hawai'i (26 percent).
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