Semester 1 SMBB This course encompasses the basic principles and techniques involved in molecular biology which will enable students to apply these techniques in the genetic engineering laboratory. The introductory lecture will expose students to genetic engineering and its application in various sectors of the industry such as agriculture, medical, pharmaceutical, environmental, etc. The following lectures will revolve around techniques in genetic engineering, cloning of heterologous genes in the Escherichia coli host which will include common procedures in molecular biology, enzymes important in molecular biology, plasmids and bacteriophage as cloning vectors, gene libraries preparation and screening for gene of interest.
Marrickville, New South Wales: Reverse Garbage is the largest reuse centre in the country, diverting more than 12, cubic metres of resources from landfills each year. The Bower Reuse and Repair Centre diverts more than 7, cubic metres of 'waste' from landfills a year in a building entirely made of salvaged materials.
REmida WA  With technological innovations, new applications and shorter product lifetimes there is an ever-increasing quantity of waste electrical and electronic equipment. The environmental pressures associated with this are well documented and include material and energy losses and an increase in air, water and land pollution from waste treatment methods.
The incorrect disposal and treatment of electrical and electronic equipment also poses threats to human health, particularly when involving illegal exports. Reusing products, and therefore extending the use of that item beyond the point where it is discarded by its first user is preferable to recycling or disposal, as this is the least energy intensive solution, although it is often overlooked.
The EU Circular Economy Package recognises the importance of extending product lifetimes and includes repair and reuse of products in its action plan to ensure products reach their optimum lifespan.
If targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions are to be reached, then reuse needs to be included as part of a whole life cycle approach.
A strong second hand market-place exists, with charity shops on most high streets, car boot trunk sales and online auction sites maintaining popularity and regular TV shows featuring both buying and selling at auction.
Inadequate repair infrastructure However, Advantages and disadvantages of biomedical wastes reuse of electrical and electronic equipment products remains low due to inadequate infrastructure, lack of repair networks and products.
Local authority collection systems are better suited for handling waste than handling goods and preserving reuse potential. Retailer delivery staff are trained to handle goods carefully. So, do we need a radical rethink on how we move unwanted, still usable items to the second-hand market place?
Is there a case for changing our approach to producer responsibility and insisting that producers finance collection for reuse, and additionally, drive consumer choices for reuse, repair and remanufacture; whilst addressing the costs of recycling and disposal? There are opportunities for producers, waste management companies and local authorities to make both repair and reuse habitual, whilst these require changes to householder behaviour change through raising awareness, they also require investment in infrastructure and logistical operations.
Is it time to insist that more products are designed to have longer lifetimes? That they can be disassembled, repaired and reused before being recycled?
Business models providing opportunities This would not necessarily be a poor strategy for businesses, there are business models that provide opportunities to retain ownership of valuable products and components through leasing, servicing, repair and re-sale. While it is choices made by consumers that will ultimately determine the success of such ventures, there is huge potential for the reuse of goods and materials to deliver social and economic and environmental benefits.
The EU Circular Economy Package, the Scottish Circular Economy Strategy and the national reuse target set by the Spanish Government are examples of governments recognising that second-hand goods should be a good value mainstream option and are working towards making reuse easier for consumers.
If we are going to be serious about living in a Circular Economy we need to recognise the value of our waste and ensure resources are kept in the economy for longer, slow down the use of valuable raw materials and ensure that products are reused and materials are recycled rather than landfilled.
Rolls Royce has a very large aircraft remanufacturing factory in Singapore; Caterpillar recently announced the opening of a tractor refurbishing plant in China.
When the refurbished item is resold under a new label used monitor CRTs made into TVs, or cameras resold under a new label this has been found legal by most courts. To quote the District Court of New Jersey: Reusable packaging Reusable glass bottles collected in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.
Although no longer common, international experience is showing that they can still be an effective way to encourage packaging reuse.
The scheme has now been extended to a penny back on a voucher which can be contributed to schools registered on the scheme; it estimates this will raise the savings in plastic to tonnes per annum. The ml brown bottle is the "standard beer reused bottle" in Brazil.
In some developing nations like India and Pakistan, the cost of new bottles often forces manufacturers to collect and refill old glass bottles for selling cola and other drinks. India and Pakistan also have a way of reusing old newspapers: Scrap intermediaries help consumer dispose of other materials including metals and plastics.
The benefits of closed-loop reuse are primarily due to low additional transport costs being involved, the empty lorry returning with the empty crates.
There have been some recent attempts to get the public to join in on closed loop reuse schemes where shoppers use reusable plastic baskets in place of carrier bags for transporting their goods home from the supermarket; these baskets fit on specially designed trolleys making shopping supposedly easier.
Refilling programs[ edit ] There have been some market-led initiatives to encourage packaging reuse by companies introducing refill packs of certain commodities mainly soap powders and cleaning fluidsthe contents being transferred before use into a reusable package kept by the customer, with the savings in packaging being passed onto the customer by lower shelf prices.
The refill pack itself is not reused, but being a minimal package for carrying the product home, it requires less material than one with the durability and features reclosable top, convenient shape, etc. Regift Some items, such as clothes and children's toys, often become unwanted before they wear out due to changes in their owner's needs or preferences; these can be reused by selling or giving them to new owners.
Regiving can take place informally between family, friends, or neighbours, through environmental freecycling organisations or through anti-poverty charities such as the Red CrossUnited WaySalvation Armyand Goodwill which give these items to those who could not afford them new.
Other organizations such as iLoveSchools have websites where both new and used goods can be offered to any of America's school teachers so their life can be extended and help schoolchildren.
The average American, for example, throws away This has partly motivated movements such as The Compactwhose members promise not to buy anything new for a year, and rely on reusing items that otherwise would be thrown away.
Reuse not only reduces landfill inline with the waste minimization program but can help raise money for a good cause. Printer cartridges and toners[ edit ] Printer ink cartridges can be reused.
They are sorted by brand and model, to be refilled or resold back to the manufacturers.Biomedical waste is generated in hospitals, nursing homes, blood bank, and pathological laboratories during diagnosis, treatment, or immunization of various diseases.The generation of a.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Recycling Many of us feel overwhelmed by the term ‘recycling’. Recycling is a form of waste management that involves converting waste and other used materials into reusable products.
The main advantage of waste disposal unit that it helps a lot to make the environment clean and fresh. waste disposal unit also plays an important role to make us disease free. There are number of waste disposal units like in every town there are. Dr. Perlmutter is the leading integrative medicine neurologist in North America today.
His ability to fully integrate conventional medicine diagnosis and treatment with the latest innovations in nutritional and environmental medicine is phenomenal. Accounting (back to top) ACCT Principles of Accounting I: Credits: 3: Basic principles and procedures in accounting relating to the complete accounting cycle for both service and merchandising companies owned as sole proprietorships and as corporations.
The biomedical model is widely accepted and forms the basis of health care throughout the western world. Advantages and disadvantages of the biomedical model of .